**Unit 9**

Topics:

**Introduction to Estimation **link:intro estimation

- Learning Objectives

- Define statistic
- Define parameter
- Define point estimate
- Define interval estimate
- Define margin of error

**Degrees of Freedom **link:Degrees of Freedom

- Learning Objectives

- Define degrees of freedom
- Estimate the variance from a sample of 1 if the population mean is known
- State why deviations from the sample mean are not independent
- State the general formula for degrees of freedom in terms of the number of values and the number of estimated parameters
- Calculate s
^{2}

**Characteristics of Estimators **link:characteristics

- Learning Objectives

- Define bias
- Define sampling variability
- Define expected value
- Define relative efficiency

**Introduction to Confidence Intervals **link:intro confidence Interval

- Learning Objectives

- Define confidence interval
- State why a confidence interval is not the probability the interval contains the parameter

**t Distribution **link:t distribution

- Learning Objectives

- State the difference between the shape of the t distribution and the normal distribution
- State how the difference between the shape of the t distribution and normal distribution is affected by the degrees of freedom
- Use a t table to find the value of t to use in a confidence interval
- Use the t calculator to find the value of t to use in a confidence interval

**Confidence Interval for the Mean **link:Confidence interval for the mean

- Learning Objectives

- Use the inverse normal distribution calculator to find the value of z to use for a confidence interval
- Compute a confidence interval on the mean when σ is known
- Determine whether to use a t distribution or a normal distribution
- Compute a confidence interval on the mean when σ is estimated

**Difference between Means **link:Difference Between Means

- Learning Objectives

- State the assumptions for computing a confidence interval on the difference between means
- Compute a confidence interval on the difference between means
- Format data for computer analysis

**Correlation **link:pearson correlation

- Learning Objectives

- State why the z’ transformation is necessary
- Compute the standard error of z’
- Compute a confidence interval on ρ

**Proportion **link:ci for proportion

- Learning Objectives

- Estimate the population proportion from sample proportions
- Apply the correction for continuity
- Compute a confidence interval

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